John Donne and the Role of St Paul’s Cathedral
in the Life of the Church of England
John Donne was Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral from 1621 to 1631. St Paul’s was (and still is) the cathedral of the Diocese of London, a component part of the Church of England. The position of St Paul’s Cathedral as the cathedral of the Diocese of London, and of Donne as its Dean, are best understood in the context of the organizational structure of the Church of England and of its clergy in the 1620’s. What follows is an attempt to sketch out that structure, to describe the normative expectations that the English had of their state Church, of its structures of authority, its worship services, and of the people’s role in its life.
While there were of course people who disagreed with the Church of England’s ways of doing things, clergy who did not follow their ordination vows to conduct worship services according to the Book of Common Prayer and the Canons of the Church, or who held theological positions different from or even contrary to the understandings of the Christian life as articulated in the official documents of the Church of England, my goal here is to set out what the religious life of most of the English was like.
Especially was this the case in the Cathedral of the Diocese of London, where religious life was under the careful scrutiny of the Bishop of London from his residence in Paul’s Churchyard and of the King himself, from his residence in the Palace of Westminster, two miles away from the Cathedral, as it sat atop Ludgate Hill on London’s western border.
Church of England — In the 1620’s, the Church of England was the official Christian body in England. With its origins in Henry VIII’s break with Rome in the 1530’s, the Church of England was formalized by the Elizabethan Settlement of Religion (1559), declaring Queen Elizabeth as the Supreme Governor of the Church. When Elizabeth died in 1603, she was succeeded by James VI of Scotland who was crowned James I of England and granted the same title, and role, in the life of the Church of England as Elizabeth had held before him.
James exercised that role early in his reign by presiding, in 1604, over the Hampton Court Conference, a gathering of Bishops of the Church of England and leaders of the Puritan wing of the Church in response to Puritan concerns expressed in the Millenary Petition to King James about their role in the Church.
Among the outcomes of the Hampton Court Conference were two publications that would form the heart of worship and congregational life in the years to come. The first was a revised edition of the Book of Common Prayer (1604), slightly updating the Book of Common Prayer (1559) that had formed the liturgical heart of the Elizabethan Settlement of Religion. The second was an authorized revision of earlier English translations of the Bible, to published in 1611, that would become known as the King James Bible.
Structure of the Church of England
Structure — The post-Reformation Church of England continued the basic internal structure of the medieval English Church, with its division of the country into geographic areas called Provinces, Dioceses, and Parishes.
The Church of England had two Provinces — the Province of Canterbury and the Province of York. Each Province was headed by an Archbishop. or Primate. The Archbishop of York was known as the Primate of England, while the Archbishop of Canterbury was know as the Primate of All England.
Each Province was divided into several Dioceses, each headed by a Bishop. The Archbishops of York and Canterbury were Bishops of their Dioceses as well as Primates of their Provences.
The Province of Canterbury, also known as the Southern Province, contained, in 1600, the Dioceses of Bath and Wells, Bristol, Canterbury, Chichester, Ely, Exeter, Gloucester, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, London, Norwich, Oxford, Peterborough, Rochester, Salisbury, Winchester, and Worcester.
The Archbishop of Canterbury when Donne was ordained (1615) was Georget Abbot (Ab of Canterbury 1611 – 1633). Abbot was succeed by William Laud, formerly Bp of London (Ab of Canterbury 1633 – 1645).
The Province of York, also known as the Northern Province, contained, in 1600, the Dioceses of Carlisle, Chester, Durham, Sodor and Man, and York.
The Archbishop of York when Donne was ordained was Tobias Matthew (Ab of York 1606 – 1628), who was folliowed by George Montaigne, formerly Bishop of London (Ab of York 1628), by Samuel Harsnett (Ab of York 1629 – 1631), and by Richard Neile (Ab of York 1632 – 1640).
Bishops of London during Donne’s career in the priesthood were John King, who ordained Donne in 1615 (Bp of London 1611 – 1621), George Montaigne (Bp of London 1621 – 1628), and William Laud (Bp of London 1628 – 1633).
Each Diocese was divided into geographic areas called Parishes, each with its Parish Church, served by a priest as rector, often assisted by another priest called the vicar or curate.
In addition to cathedrals and parish churches, the Church of England also had churches, called peculiars, that existed outside the diocesan structure. Chief among them were the Royal Peculiars, which answered directly to the Crown rather than to a diocesan bishop. These included Westminster Abbey, St George’s Chapel, Windsor, and the Chapels Royal at Hampton Court and the Palace at Westminster. Others included the Queen’s Chapel of the Savoy, the Chapels of St Peter ad Vincula and St John the Evangelist in the Tower of London and the Royal Foundation of St Katharine, also near the Tower.
Orders of Ministry
Clergy of the Church of England were ordained by Diocesan Bishops, using the ordination rites (the Ordinal: The form and manner of making and consecrating Bishops, Priests, and Deacons ) provided by the Book of Common Prayer.
In the hierarchy of ministry in the Church of England, Deacons were ordained “to assist the Priest in Divine Service, and specially when he ministereth the holy Communion, and to help him in the distribution thereof; and to read Holy Scriptures and Homilies in the Church; and to instruct the youth in the Catechism; in the absence of the Priest to baptize infants; and to preach, if he be admitted thereto by the Bishop.”
In Donne’s day, the Office of a Deacon was generally a transitional office. In other words, most people going through the ordination process were ordained as Deacons, then ordained as Priests after six or more months. An exception was Nicholas Ferrar, who was ordained a Deacon in 1626 but was never ordained to the Priesthood.
Priests in the Church of England were ordained to the “Office and Work of a Priest in the Church of God,” which consisted of pronouncing forgiveness of sins, preaching “the Word of God, and [ministering] the holy Sacraments in the Congregation, where [they] shalt be lawfully appointed thereunto” as well as to “bring all such as are or shall be committed to [their] charge, unto that agreement in the faith and knowledge of God, and to that ripeness and perfectness of age in Christ, that there be no place left among [them], either for error in religion, or for viciousness in life.”
Bishops in the Church of England were consecrated to “instruct the people committed to [their] charge; and to teach or maintain nothing, as necessary to eternal salvation, but that which [they] shall be persuaded may be concluded and proved by [the Holy Scriptures],” to study “the Holy Scriptures, and call upon God by prayer for the true understanding of the same; so that [they] may be able by them to teach and exhort with wholesome Doctrine, and to withstand and convince the gainsayers,” to
“banish and drive away from the Church all erroneous and strange doctrine contrary to God’s Word; and both privately and openly to call upon and encourage others to the same,” to “show [themselves] in all things an example of good works unto others,” to “maintain and set forward . . . quietness, love, and peace among all men; and such as be unquiet, disobedient, and criminous, within [their] Diocese, correct and punish, according to such authority as [they] have,” to “be faithful in Ordaining, sending, or laying hands upon others, and to “shew [themselves] gentle, and be merciful for Christ’s sake to poor and needy people, and to all strangers destitute of help.”
John Donne was ordained Deacon and Priest on the same day, on January 25th, 1615, by John King, Bishop of London, in the Bishop’s Chapel, which was located against the side of St Paul’s, on the north side of the Cathedral.
Being ordained both to the office of Deacon and Priest on the same day was strictly against the Canons of the Church of England, which required that at least six months intervene between ordination to the Diaconate and ordination to the Priesthood. But Donne was being ordained at the request of King James, who had been encouraging Donne for several years to be ordained, and James was, after all, not only King of England but also Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Bishop King was hardly in a position to reject the King’s request.
Clergy appointed rectors of parishes often hired other clergy to serve in their stead, setting up the possibility that a priest might be the rector of more than one congregation.
John Donne, for example, was appointed rector of St John the Baptist parish church in Keyston, in Huntingdonshire, on January 16, 1615, then also became the Reader in Divinity at Lincoln’s Inn in 1616, the same year he also became the rector of St Nicholas parish church in Sevenoaks, in Kent. Without giving up any of these posts, he also became Chaplain to the Viscount Doncaster in 1619 and accompanied him that year on the Viscount’s embassy to Germany.
Donne finally resigned from his post at Keyston in October of 1621, only to become Dean of St Paul’s later that November. He also resigned from his position at Lincoln’s Inn in February of 1622, but was appointed Rector of St Edmund’s Church in Blunham, in Bedfordshire, in April of that year. He also became a vicar at St Dunstan’s in London in March of 1624, a post he held until his death in 1631.
Donne was not totally absent from his parish churches; he preached occasionally and attended Vestry meetings at St Dunstan’s and there are reports of his visiting the rural parishes at least from time to time. He must have had a special connection with his parishioners at St Edmund’s in Blunham, because he gave them a chalice he had had made by a silversmith in London in 1626.
Clergy were appointed by their Bishops, often with input from the local member of the nobility or from the monarch. Clergy salaries were funded by the payment by their parishioners of tithes, or “the tenth part of the increase, yearly arising and renewing from the profits of lands, the stock upon lands, and the personal industry of the inhabitants.”
When Donne resigned from his position at St John the Baptist parish church in Keyston, he sued them for not paying him what he thought he had coming to him in salary.
Clergy in the Church of England had opportunities to hold other posts besides those of parish priest or diocesan bishop. Bishops had staffs of clergy, headed by a senior priest who held the title of Archdeacon. Clergy could serve as chaplains in private chapels in the homes of the nobility. They also staffed the Royal and other Peculiars, the chapels in the Colleges at Oxford and Cambridge Universities and the Inns of Court in London.
Cathedrals had chapters of clergy, called Canons or Prebends. Some of these cathedral clergy were residential, working full time in the cathedral itself. Others had additional posts as rectors of parishes or other church positions; they came to the cathedral for meetings of the Chapter or for special events in the cathedral.
In Donne’s day, St Paul’s had 30 Canons, each one of which had his own seat in the Cathedral’s Choir.
Meetings of Convocation are assemblies of the Bishops and clergy in the Provinces of Canterbury and York. These meetings have been held periodically since the late centuries of the first millenium. The meetings were originally of Bishops, but by 1283 membership had come to include the bishops, deans, archdeacons, and abbots of each province, along with one representative (or proctor) from each cathedral chapter and two proctors elected by the clergy of each diocese.
Members of Convocation met in two Houses, with the House of Bishops meeting separately from the Lower House of deans and other clergy. Convocation met in Westminster Abbey.
John Donne attended meetings of the Convocation of Canterbury while he was Dean of St Paul’s. At the meeting of 1626, he was elected the Prolocutor, or presiding officer of the Lower House. As prolocutor, Donne delivered a Latin oration to a gathering of both Houses of Convocation. See XXX
Link between Medieval St Paul’s and Wren’s St Paul’s
We know that stones from Medieval St Paul’s were reused in the construction of Wren’s baroque replacement. If you take the guided tour of Wren’s Cathedral, the tour guide will probably point some of these out to you when you are being guided around the basement.
Three sets of facts may provide clues to a further link.
The first set includes the data that John King, Bp of London (who ordained Donne to the diaconate and priesthood in 1615) died on Good Friday, 30 March 1621, and was buried in the south aisle of St. Paul’s Cathedral, under a plain stone on which was inscribed only the word RESURGAM.
RESURGAM is, of course, Latin for “I shall rise again.”
The second set includes the story that Christopher Wren, when he first began to lay out on the floor of the reconstructed cathedral the shape of his proposed dome, called a workman to bring him a bit of stone. The workman grabbed the first piece that came to hand. Inscribed on it in Latin was the word, RESURGAM.
The third set includes that date that above the door of the South Transept of today’s St Paul’s is a carving (see below) which shows a phoenix rising from the fires of his nest. Below the phoenix is a stone carving which says RESURGAM.
The stone here could be an original part of this carving, perhaps inspired by the stone the workman found. but it does seem to have been broken vertically around the letter “G.”
Not something one might do if one were carving this stone specifically for this doorway, but just the thing one might include in this carving from the old Cathedral, if this stone is the stone the workman found, and especially if the stone the workman found is the stone carving from Bishop King’s grave marker.
Just saying . . . . .
In the Preface to the first Book of Common Prayer (1549), Archbishop Cranmer stresses the importance of uniform public worship, noting that heretofore, there hath been great diversitie in saying and synging in churches within this realme: some folowyng Salsbury use, some Herford use, some the use of Bangor, some of Yorke, and some of Lincolne: Now from hencefurth, all the whole realme shall have but one use.In The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, c. 1400 – c. 1580, second edition (Yale, 2005) p. 593. See also Judith Maltby, Prayer Book and People in Elizabethan and early … Continue reading
Cranmer’s vision is of a nation united in prayer through “use” of common forms of worship and texts for prayer. To enable this uniformity of worship, the Church of England in the reign of Edward VI, produced a series of monumental publications stretching from the Great Bible (1539), William Harrison, The Description of England (second edition 1587; rpt. Dover, 1968) p. 36. through the first Book of Homilies (1547) and the first Books of Common Prayer (1549, 1552), investing enormous resources in enabling Englishfolk to have “one use” [?]
As a result of the general implementation of Cranmer’s plan for the transformation of corporate religious life in England, as Eamon Duffey puts it, “Cranmer’s somberely magnificent prose, read week by week, entered and possessed their minds, and became the fabric of their prayer, the utterance of their most solemn and their most vulnerable moments.” [?] Or, as William Harrison put it in his classic contemporary account of Tudor social life Citation (and perhaps tell us who this is , “the minister saith his service commonly in the body of the church, with his face toward the people” so “the ignorant doo not onelie learne diuerse of the psalmes and vsuall praiers by heart, but also such as can read, doo praie togither with [the priest]: so that the whole congregation at one instant powere out their petitions vnto the liuing God.” [?]
There is nothing read in our churches but the canonical Scriptures, whereby it cometh to pass that the Psalter is said over once in thirty days, the New Testament four times, and the Old Testament once in the year. And hereunto, if the curate be adjudged by the bishop or his deputies sufficiently instructed in the holy Scriptures, and therewithal able to teach, he permitteth him to make some exposition or exhortation in his parish unto amendment of life. And for so much as our churches and universities have been so spoiled in time of error, as there cannot yet be had such number of able pastors as may suffice for every parish to have one, therebare (beside four sermons appointed by public order in the year) certain sermons or homilies (devised by sundry learned men, confirmed for sound doctrine by consent of the divines, and public authority of the prince), and those appointed to be read by the curates of mean understanding (which homilies do comprehend the principal parts of Christian doctrine, as of original sin, of justification by faith, of charity, and such like) upon the Sabbath days unto the congregation. And, after a certain number of psalms read, which are limited according to the dates of the month, for morning and evening prayer we have two lessons, whereof the first is taken out of the Old Testament, the second out of the New; and of these latter, that in the morning is out of the Gospels, the other in the afternoon out of some one of the Epistles. After morning prayer also, we have the Litany and suffrages, an invocation in mine opinion not devised without the great assistance of the Spirit of God, although many curious mind-sick persons utterly condemn it as superstitious, and savouring of conjuration and sorcery.
This being done, we proceed unto the communion, if any communicants be to receive the Eucharist; if not, we read the Decalogue, Epistle, and Gospel, with the Nicene Creed (of some in derision called the “dry communion”), and then proceed unto an homily or sermon, which hath a psalm before and after it, and finally unto the baptism of such infants as on every Sabbath day (if occasion so require) are brought unto the churches; and thus is the forenoon bestowed. In the afternoon likewise we meet again, and, after the psalms and lessons ended, we have commonly a sermon, or at the leastwise our youth catechised by the space of an hour. And thus do we spend the Sabbath day in good and godly exercises, all done in our vulgar tongue, that each one present may hear and understand the same, which also in cathedral and collegiate churches is so ordered that the psalms only are sung by note, the rest being read (as in common parish churches) by the minister with a loud voice, saving that in the administration of the communion the choir singeth the answers, the creed, and sundry other things appointed, but in so plain, I say, and distinct manner that each one present may understand what they sing, every word having but one note, though the whole harmony consist of many parts, and those very cunningly set by the skilful in that science.
|↑1||In The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, c. 1400 – c. 1580, second edition (Yale, 2005) p. 593. See also Judith Maltby, Prayer Book and People in Elizabethan and early Stuart England (Cambridge, 1998) for an informed discussion of the limits on implementation of the English liturgical reformation and on lay response to dissenting clergy.|
|↑2||William Harrison, The Description of England (second edition 1587; rpt. Dover, 1968) p. 36.|
|↑3||Citation (and perhaps tell us who this is|