The Virtual St Paul’s Cathedral Project is inevitably a work in progress. As such, the Visual Model represents a stage in that work. To bring together in one model the things we know or believe we know about the structures in Paul’s Churchyard requires drawing a line at some point in the process of our research. We have done this in the full knowledge that there is more to know, that new information will appear; indeed, we hope that our work will inspire other people to continue it by looking for new sources of information about the buildings inside Paul’s Churchyard.
For example, we have recently become aware of a document that indicates that a member of the Cathedral’s custodial staff received payment for “polishing the eagle.” What this means is not clear from the document, but it might mean that St Paul’s had a brass lectern with an eagle on it used in the Choir to hold the folio copy of the Bible — in the 1620’s, the Authorized, or King James Bible of 1611 — from which the Lessons appointed by the Prayer Book Lectionary would have been read during services.
Such brass lecterns were common in cathedrals and churches in the 16th and 17th centuries; the one pictured above is c. 1500. We considered making the one in our model a lectern like this but opted for a simpler design since we had no specific evidence that St Paul’s lectern was of this design or materials. Future versions of our model may well want to adopt this design so that the custodians of our model may be able to earn extra money by polishing this eagle.
For another, more significant example — well after we had modeled the houses on the South Side of the Cathedral as representationally accurate, our archaeological consultant John Schofield found a survey of the Deanery which gave us more specific information about its size and organization. This survey was made in 1649, after the abolition of the Church of England by the Commonwealth government; the cathedral had been closed, the lands of the Dean and Chapter surveyed, because the Commonwealth government viewed them as assets to be sold.
Here is Schofield’s survey:
Fortunately, Schofield made this discovery in time for us to incorporate it into our exerior model, thus:
But we are convinced that the Commonwealth government also surveyed other buildings in the Churchyard owned by the Cathedral, and that their dimensions are also to be found in the Parliamentary Survey in the London Mertropolitan Archives. They await those who follow us in working on the Virtual St Paul’s Cathedral Model.
There are parts of the Visual Model that are based on more substantial data than others. For example, in our Visual Model, the houses on the northeast side of the Churchyard are modeled on the basis of measurements and descriptions contained in surveys of the foundations of these buildings which owners of the property were required to provide to the government of the City of London as a condition of their rebuilding this property. Our models in this area, therefore, combine these specific detail with more generic characteristics one finds in surviving images of these kinds of buildings.
The houses on the south side, except for the Deanery, of course, are shown as houses of the period, based on the property boundaries on Ogilby and Morgan’s post-Fire map of 1676 and therefore may be said to be representationally accurate; that is to say, they are based on surviving images of these types of structures. For more on our modeling principles embodied in these structures, see the discussion elsewhere on this website.
Future work may help us provide more specific details about the houses of the Chancellor, Precentor, Treasurer, and other cathedral dignitaries who lived in this area of the Churchyard. Recently, Roger Bowers, our resident authority on cathedral music, has brought to our attention that the Ledgers of the cathedral’s Chapter survive, also in the London Metropolitan Archives. These ledgers contain, as Bowers puts it, the Chapter’s “office copies of the leases it had made of the properties it owned.” These accounts include detailed descriptions of the porperties inside the Churchyard, as well as accounts of when they were leased out, and to whom.
Bowers used these records to create a description of one structure inside the Churchyard, the Almoner’s House, just south of the nave and west of the wall around the Cathedral’s Chapter house. Here is Bowers’ reconstruction of the building based on the evidence contained in the Dean’s Register for Donne’s time as Dean:
Here is our current model of the Almoner’s House, based on surviving images:
Our models are similar, not identical. In this case, as in the case of all the structures, our information came too late in the modeling process for us to take full advantage of it.
As we move the Project closer to a stopping point — so we can write final reports to the NEH, for example — we look forward to what others may uncover that will bring new light, as well as renewed accuracy, to our models.